Handling electrical wires can pose serious threats to both the layperson and the trained electrician, which is why it’s nothing short of critical to understand wire colorings. There are several wire identification standards that rely on color codes, and most industry professionals agree on what electrical wiring colors typically represent. These colors can clue you into what a wire is used for and how much voltage is running through it.
Let’s take a closer look at electrical wire color codes.
Electrical Wire Color Codes
The National Electrical Code (NEC) designates white or gray wire as neutral and bare copper or green wire as grounds, but beyond that, virtually any other color can be a hot wire. Generally, electricians follow industry-accepted color codes to identify AC power wires in branch circuits, or the wires between the load and the last protective device, such as a circuit breaker. These wiring colors are typical in residential and commercial construction.
Some regions or applications use different color codes, so it’s important to have and follow a documented color identification system, preferably one that follows widely accepted industry standards. Some applications that fall outside of standard color categories include wires that run DC power and telecommunications wire. Canadian and European installations follow the Canadian Electric Code (CEC) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), respectively.
Here are the general house wiring colors:
Black Electrical Wires
A black electrical wire is always considered a hot wire — a wire that carries a live current from the electrical panel to its destination. Black wires generally transfer power to switches and outlets in various circuits and can be used as switch legs, which connect a switch to the electrical load. Treat black wires with caution.
Red and Orange Electrical Wires
Red and orange wires are secondary live wires, with red used in low-voltage applications and orange used as a high-voltage wire color. You can connect two red wires together or link a red wire with a black wire if needed.
You’ll find red and orange wires used in some switch legs and to link hardwired smoke detectors with the overall power system of a home. This ensures all smoke alarms go off simultaneously if one is triggered.
White Electrical Wires With Red or Black Tape
White wires are typically neutral, but red or black tape designates them as hot wires. Always be cautious with red- or black-taped white wire. If you’re working with older wires, keep an eye out for signs that a piece of tape has fallen off, like residue on the wire or a loose piece of tape in the electrical box. If the tape has fallen off, you may be working with a hot wire instead of a neutral one as expected.
Green Electrical Wires
Green electrical wires are insulated and often used for grounding. They may have a yellow stripe. These wires link up to an outlet box’s grounding terminal, moving from the box to the ground bus bar of an electric panel. They can only connect with other green wires. Faults in the circuit could cause a green wire to be live, so never assume one isn’t carrying a current.
Copper Wires With No Insulation
A bare copper wire also acts as a ground wire, typically connecting to outlets and switches. This is a common color to use for grounding.
White and Gray Electrical Wires
White and gray colors indicate a neutral wire that connects to the neutral bus bar in the electrical panel. They can only be connected to each other. While hot wires carry power from a service panel to a device, neutral wires bring power back to the service panel, so they can still carry a current and be hazardous. Treat them with caution.
Blue and Yellow Electrical Wires
Blue and yellow wires will sometimes be hot wires in electrical conduit. Yellow is a high-voltage wire color, often used for switch legs to installations like ceiling fans, lights and outlets connected with light switches. Blue is more often used as a low-voltage color code, such as in travelers for three- or four-way switches.
Choosing the Appropriate Conduit and Cable Entry System
The right conduit and cable entry system for a wire will depend on several factors, such as where the wire will be installed and whether you need connectors. Conduit comes in rigid or flexible forms. It’s usually used in exposed locations or unfinished areas where the wires could be exposed to the elements or is otherwise required by the NEC.
Some options include:
- Electrical metal conduit: This thin, lightweight tubing is often used indoors for residential or light commercial construction.
- Flexible metal conduit: A spiral design allows conduit to bend, making it easy to install in walls. It’s good for short runs in exposed settings.
- Rigid metal or intermediate metal conduit: This heavy-duty conduit uses galvanized steel and is often used in structural piping for utility service lines.
- Electrical non-metallic tubing: This tubing is made of plastic for use within residential walls and concrete block structures.
- Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): PVC is another material often used in structural piping, but it can be heated, bent and joined via glue or threaded connections.
You’ll also need to consider your cable entry system, which may or may not have connectors.
If your cable entry system has connectors, you’re working with split cable entry. You won’t need to solder or cut connectors after cable entry, which can help retain your cable’s warranty. These pre-terminated systems usually have frames made of plastic or stainless steel and grommets made of elastomer. For better ingress protection and strain relief, consider installing a grommet that matches the cable’s diameter.
If your cable entry system doesn’t have connectors, you can seal the cutouts with gland plates, cable glands or self-sealing grommets. By sealing these entry points, you can better protect the machine or enclosure from contamination. For particularly hygienic applications, such as food production or healthcare, use a membrane-based seal with a smoother surface that prevents dirt collection more effectively.
Protect Your Electrical Wiring With AerosUSA
Whichever kind of wire you’re working with, AerosUSA offers a wide range of protection and strain relief solutions, including conduit, cable entry systems, fittings, connectors and more. Our products hold applicable accreditations, like UL and World Wide approval and certifications.
From ultraviolet protection to easy snap-on connectors and specialty technologies, our products help solve an array of installation challenges. Find the right fit for your application within this large selection, or reach out to us if you have any questions about choosing the ideal type of cable protection.